The genus Heros differs from the other genus of the Heroini Kullander Tribe, 1998 (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in that it has a dark spot at the base of the last soft rays of the dorsal fin, commonly referred to as the "Tilapia spot". It also has the following characters: two supra-neural bones, reduced number of pleural vertebrae, only half centrum in the caudal peduncle, six to nine spines in the anal fin, and no spot in the caudal fin.

Identification Key of Heros efasciatus:

1- Three series of scales between the upper and lower lateral lines .............................................................................................. Heros severus

The Heros severus species can be diagnosed from all congeners by having three series of scales between the upper and lower lateral lines (vs two series of scales).

The species Heros severus presents the upper body, laterally compressed, more pronounced in the ventral region. Upper lip thin. Convex dorsal profile of the eye region to approximately the last spine of the dorsal fin; descending from the first soft ray to the end of the dorsal fin; short, strongly compressed caudal peduncle, higher than long. Lower lip thicker than upper lip; no folds. Convex ventral profile to caudal peduncle. Smooth operculum, preopercle, cleiter, supra-cleiter, post-temporal.

As a pattern of vertical stripes and fins on the fins has dark green body, red ventral region, face with bands and red spots without regular pattern and red fins with some light spots.

Heros severus  Heckel, 1840

Heros severus  Heckel, 1840

According to FISHBASE:

Kingdom = Animalia ; Phylum = Chordata ; Class = Actinopterygii ; Perciformes ; Family = Cichlidae ; Genus =
Heros.

Distribution: South America: Orinoco River basin, in the Upper Orinoco River drainage in Colombia and Venezuela; Amazon River Basin, in the upper Rio Negro basin.

Size - Maximum Length: 20,0 cm.

Synonyms: Heros severus, Cichlasoma severum.

Common name of Heros severus: Acará Severo, Acará Peba, Striped cichlid,  Severum, Banded cichlid (EUA).

Heros severus  Heckel, 1840

Reference: Kullander, S.O., 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Heros severus  Heckel, 1840

Heros severus  Heckel, 1840

References:

FISHBASE = https://www.fishbase.de/summary/Heros-severus

INSTRUÇÃO NORMATIVA INTERMINISTERIAL N°1, DE 3 DE JANEIRO DE 2012. Diário Oficial da União – Seção I, Nº3, quarta-feira, 4 de janeiro de 2012, páginas 26 a 42 – ISSN 1677-7042 INI MPA-MMA (n01-2012 - Peixes Ornamentais Continentais.pdf)

Barriga, R. 1991 Peces de agua dulce del Ecuador. Revista de Informacion tecnico-cientifica, Quito, Ecuador, Politecnica, XVI(3):7-88

Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl 1995 Aquarien Atlas. Band 4. Mergus Verlag GmbH, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde, Melle, Germany. 864p.

Buckup, P. A., & Santos, G. M. 2010. Ictiofauna da Ecorregião Xingu-Tapajós: fatos e perspectivas. Boletim da Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia, 98, 3-9.

Camargo, M., Giarrizzo, T., & Carvalho Júnior, J. 2005. Levantamento ecológico rápido da fauna ictica de tributários do Médio-baixo Tapajós e Curuá. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, 1(2), 213-231

ICMBIO Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade. Levantamento da Ictiofauna, Caracterização Genética e da Fauna Parasitária da bacia hidrográfica do rio Tapajós. 2011

Fernández-Yépez, A. 1969. Contribucion al conocimiento de los cichlidos. Evências, 22: 1-16.

Kullander, S. O. 1986. Cichlid fishes of the Amazon River drainage of Peru. Swedish Museum of Natural History. Stockholm, Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, 431p.

Kullander, S. O. 1998. A phylogeny and classification of the South American Cichlidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Pp. 461-498. In: L. R. Malabarba, R. E. Reis, R. P. Vari, Z. M. S. Lucena & C. A. S. Lucena (Eds.). Phylogeny and classification of Neotropical fishes. Porto Alegre, Edipucrs, 603p.

Kullander, S. O. 2003. Family Cichlidae (Cichlids). Pp. 605-654. In: R. E. Reis, S. O. Kullander & C. J. Ferraris, Jr. (Eds.). Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre, Edipucrs, 729p.

Riehl, R. and H.A. Baensch, 1991. Aquarien Atlas. Band. 1. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur-und Heimtierkunde, Germany.

Heros severus  Heckel, 1840

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Heros severus  Heckel, 1840

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