Identification key Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis: Lemon tetra
 
Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis Ahl, 1937
 
1. All or most of the unicuspid, tapered or caniniform teeth, or nipple teeth (bulky, but with a single cusp) outside the mouth ........2
 
2. Incomplete lateral line (small species, not exceeding 4.0 cm CP); pseudotympanum present, conspicuous .......................9
 
9. A dark spot on the anterior portion of the dorsal fin; no spots or streaks on the body, except for a narrow dark spot on the caudal peduncle - base of the caudal fin; miniature size (maximum length less than 2 cm CP) ..........................................................................................60

60 ’. Lower lobe of the caudal fin of the same size as the upper lobe, without any dark band; anal fin typically with more than 16 branched rays, anal fin lobe generally shorter than the length of the flap base (except Hemigrammus analis) ................................................................................63

63 ’. Dark spot on the caudal peduncle and / or median rays of the absent caudal fin ..........................................................................72

72 ’. Caudal fin lobes without dark spots; mature males with small hooks distributed along the anterior rays of the anal fin, or absent hooks; never just two big hooks ...................................................................73
 
73 ’. Dorsal fin typically without dark pigmentation (except for dark anterior margin in Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis) .....................74
 
74 ’. Anal fin with 17 or more branched rays; lobe of the anal fin always shorter than the base of the anal fin ...............................75
 
75. Anal fin with dark pigmentation along its margin or with a dark vertical and oblique stripe along its anterior portion ..................76
 
76. A dark band along the edge of the anal fin ................77
 
77. Dark margin of the anal fin quite conspicuous; light color in life, with yellow pigmentation on the dorsal and anal fins, and with red eye .........................................................Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis

Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis, Tetra limão, Citrontetra, Lemon tetra

Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis Ahl, 1937 

According to FISHBASE:

Kingdom = Animalia ; Phylum = Chordata ; Class = Actinopterygii ; Order = Characiformes ; Family = Characidae ; Genus =
  Hyphessobrycon.

Distribution: South America: Upper Tapajós River basin.

Size - Maximum Length: 3,8 cm.

Synonyms: Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis, Hemigrammus erythrophthalmus.

Common name of Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis: Tetra limão, Citrontetra, Lemon tetra (EUA).

Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis, Tetra limão, Citrontetra, Lemon tetra

Reference: Burt, A., D.L. Kramer, K. Nakatsuru and C. Spry, 1988. The tempo of reproduction in Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis (Characidae), with a discussion on the biology of 'multiple spawning' in fishes. Environ. Biol. Fish. 22(1):15-27.

Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis, Tetra limão, Citrontetra, Lemon tetra

Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis, Tetra limão, Citrontetra, Lemon tetra

Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis, Tetra limão, Citrontetra, Lemon tetra

References:

Heterocharax macrolepis: piaba, tetra violeta, Sardinita, Viherkuultotetra

FISHBASE = https://www.fishbase.de/summary/Hyphessobrycon-pulchripinnis

INSTRUÇÃO NORMATIVA INTERMINISTERIAL N°1, DE 3 DE JANEIRO DE 2012. Diário Oficial da União – Seção I, Nº3, quarta-feira, 4 de janeiro de 2012, páginas 26 a 42 – ISSN 1677-7042 INI MPA-MMA (n01-2012 - Peixes Ornamentais Continentais.pdf)

Burt, A., D.L. Kramer, K. Nakatsuru and C. Spry, 1988. The tempo of reproduction in Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis (Characidae), with a discussion on the biology of 'multiple spawning' in fishes. Environ. Biol. Fish. 22(1):15-27.

Géry, J., 1977. Characoids of the world. Neptune City ; Reigate : T.F.H. [etc.]; 672 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 23 cm.

Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. …, 2003. Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Lucena, C.A.S. and N.A. Menezes, 2003. Subfamily Characinae (Characins, tetras). p. 200-208. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Mattox, G.M.T., Britz, R., Toledo-Piza, M. & Marinho, M.M.F. (2013): Cyanogaster noctivaga, a remarkable new genus and species of miniature fish from the Rio Negro, Amazon basin (Ostariophysi: Characidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 23 (4) [2012]: 297-318.

Moreira, C.R. 2007. Relações filogenéticas na ordem Characiformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Tese de doutorado não publicada, Universidade de São Paulo, 468p.

Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.; Buckup P.A.: "Relationships of the Characidiinae and phylogeny of characiform fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi)", Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, L.R. Malabarba, R.E. Reis, R.P. Vari, Z.M. Lucena, eds. (Porto Alegre: Edipucr) 1998:123-144.

Planquette, P., P. Keith and P.-Y. Le Bail, 1996. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane. Tome 1. Collection du Patrimoine Naturel Volume 22, MNHN, Paris & INRA, Paris. 429 p.

Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.  

Weitzman, M. and S.H. Weitzman, 2003. Lebiasinidae (Pencil fishes). p. 241-251. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Weitzman, S.H. and L. Palmer, 1997. A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae) from Neblina region of Venezuela and Brazil, with comments on the putative 'rosy tetra clade'. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 7(3/4):209-242.

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