The order of Characiformes is considered to be the largest and most diversified order of freshwater fish in existence.

This large group includes species with well-differentiated scales and a great diversity of shapes: from small lambaris and tetras, less than 5 centimeters in length, to tambaquis from the Amazon, which reach more than 1 meter in length and 60 kilos.

The different species of the order of the Characiformes are grouped in families, according to characteristics that they have in common. Currently, 14 families are recognized: Parodontidae (pocket knives), Curimatidae (saguirus, branquinhas), Prochilodontidae (curimbatás), Anostomidae (piaus, piaparas, aracus), Crenuchidae (young girls), Hemiodontidae (southern-cross), Gasteropelecidae (fish) butterfly), Characidae (lambaris, piabas, tetras, pacus, piranhas, tambaquis, dorados, matrinchãs), Acestrorhynchidae (ovevas, dogfish), Cynodontidae (dog), Erythrinidae (traíras), Lebiasinidae (zeppelins, copepines) pointed).

At the headwaters of rivers such as Tocantins, Paraguay, São Francisco, Xingu, Tapajós and others that feed the great Amazon basin, there is always a high number of endemic species, that is, fish that cannot survive in another type of environment.

The high diversity, the strong sexual dimorphism and dichromism make the identification of species of Characiformes a difficult task.

Normalmente as  espécies  de  Apistogramma  possuem distribuição geográfica muito limitada, sendo comuns  espécies  endêmicas  de  um  único rio  ou  área  alagada  adjacente.

Leia mais: https://www.florestaaguadonorte.com.br/peixes-ornamentais-da-amazonia/ornamental-fish-of-the-amazon/apistogramma/
Normalmente as  espécies  de  Apistogramma  possuem distribuição geográfica muito limitada, sendo comuns  espécies  endêmicas  de  um  único rio  ou  área  alagada  adjacente.

Leia mais: https://www.florestaaguadonorte.com.br/peixes-ornamentais-da-amazonia/ornamental-fish-of-the-amazon/apistogramma/

Carnegiella marthae

Carnegiella schereri

Carnegiella strigata

Chalceus erythrurus

Chalceus macrolepidotus

Copella arnoldi

Gnathocharax steindachneri

Hemigramm us bleheri

Hemigrammus stictus

Hemiodus gracilis

Heterocharax macrolepis

Hyphessobrycon cachimbensis

Hyphessobrycon copelandi

Hyphessobrycon eques

Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis

Hyphessobrycon scutulatus

Hyphessobrycon vilmae

Leporinus fasciatus

Nannostomus eques

Nannostomus unifasciatus

Paracheirodon axelrodi

Paracheirodon innesi

Copella arnoldi: Copella, Piratantã,  Splash Tetra, Jumping Characin

ORDER OF CHARACIFORMES

Key to the CHARACIFORMES FAMILIES:
1. Rounded caudal fin; absent adipose fin ..................................Erythrinidae
1'. Bifurcated caudal fin; adipose fin present (with exceptions: see Lebiasinidae) .............................................................................................2
2. Long snout; wide mouth with large caniniform teeth .................................................................................................Acestrorhynchidae
2'. Short muzzle; mouth usually small, with or without teeth ................3
3. Mouth without teeth ...................................................................Curimatidae
3 ‘. Mouth with teeth ...................................................................................4
4. Mouth facing upwards, with slightly fringed lips; presence of only four incisiform teeth on each side of the upper and lower jaws ...........................................................................................................Anostomidae
4 ‘. Mouth usually terminal, with simple lips; presence of tapered or spit teeth, usually more than four on each side of the jaws ........................................................................................................................5
5. Body approximately cylindrical and covered with large scales; adipose fin usually absent ................................................................................Lebiasinidae
5 ‘. Body compressed laterally and covered with small scales; adipose fin present ...........................................................................................................6
6. Anterior portion of the body high and laterally compressed, with very large pectoral fins; small mouth and turned upwards .....................................................................................................Gasteropelecidae
6 ‘. Relatively low anterior part of the body with relatively small pectoral fins ..........................................................................................................................7
7. Dorsal fin with more than 12 branched rays ...........................Crenuchidae
7 ‘. Dorsal fin with less than 12 branched rays ...........................Characidae

Hyphessobrycon copelandi, tetra botafoguinho, tetra pena, Federsalmler, Feather tetra

References:

Heterocharax macrolepis: piaba, tetra violeta, Sardinita, Viherkuultotetra

INSTRUÇÃO NORMATIVA INTERMINISTERIAL N°1, DE 3 DE JANEIRO DE 2012. Diário Oficial da União – Seção I, Nº3, quarta-feira, 4 de janeiro de 2012, páginas 26 a 42 – ISSN 1677-7042 INI MPA-MMA (n01-2012 - Peixes Ornamentais Continentais.pdf)

Burt, A., D.L. Kramer, K. Nakatsuru and C. Spry, 1988. The tempo of reproduction in Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis (Characidae), with a discussion on the biology of 'multiple spawning' in fishes. Environ. Biol. Fish. 22(1):15-27.

Géry, J., 1977. Characoids of the world. Neptune City ; Reigate : T.F.H. [etc.]; 672 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 23 cm.

Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. …, 2003. Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Lucena, C.A.S. and N.A. Menezes, 2003. Subfamily Characinae (Characins, tetras). p. 200-208. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Mattox, G.M.T., Britz, R., Toledo-Piza, M. & Marinho, M.M.F. (2013): Cyanogaster noctivaga, a remarkable new genus and species of miniature fish from the Rio Negro, Amazon basin (Ostariophysi: Characidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 23 (4) [2012]: 297-318.

Moreira, C.R. 2007. Relações filogenéticas na ordem Characiformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Tese de doutorado não publicada, Universidade de São Paulo, 468p.

Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.; Buckup P.A.: "Relationships of the Characidiinae and phylogeny of characiform fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi)", Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, L.R. Malabarba, R.E. Reis, R.P. Vari, Z.M. Lucena, eds. (Porto Alegre: Edipucr) 1998:123-144.

Planquette, P., P. Keith and P.-Y. Le Bail, 1996. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane. Tome 1. Collection du Patrimoine Naturel Volume 22, MNHN, Paris & INRA, Paris. 429 p.

Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.  

Weitzman, M. and S.H. Weitzman, 2003. Lebiasinidae (Pencil fishes). p. 241-251. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Weitzman, S.H. and L. Palmer, 1997. A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae) from Neblina region of Venezuela and Brazil, with comments on the putative 'rosy tetra clade'. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 7(3/4):209-242.

Copella arnoldi: Copella, Piratantã,  Splash Tetra, Jumping Characin

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Gnathocharax steindachneri: Piaba, Tetra-aruanã, Fliegensalmler, Arowana Tetra

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Hyphessobrycon copelandi, tetra botafoguinho, tetra pena, Federsalmler, Feather tetra

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