Identification Key for the Chalceus macrolepidotus:

1 - Absence of distinct spots or conspicuous stripes of dark pigmentation on body (except for wide and inconspicuous longitudinal band formed by chromatophores located superficially in the skin in some specimens during reproductive period)  ...........................................Chalceus macrolepidotus

Chalceus macrolepidotus: Araripirá, Ararí, Chalceu, Arari vermelho (Brasil); São Pedro, Pink-tailed characin, Pink tailed chalceus
 
Description of the Chalceus macrolepidotus species:

 
Chalceus macrolepidotus Cuvier, 1818
 
Chalceus macrolepidotus can be easily distinguished from all other Chalceus species by the absence of distinct spots of pigmentation or stripes (except for some sexually mature).

Chalceus macrolepidotus can grow up to 25 cm. It has a robust body, relatively elongated, with greater body depth of the dorsal fin. The dorsal profile of the head is convex. This species typically has higher amounts of rays in the scales of the lateral line and in the anal fin.
halceus macrolepidotus pode ser facilmente distinguido de todas as outras espécies de Chalceus pela ausência de pontos distintos de pigmentação ou listras (exceto por algumas sexualmente maduras).

Chalceus macrolepidotus: Araripirá, Ararí, Chalceu, Arari vermelho (Brasil); São Pedro, Pink-tailed characin, Pink tailed chalceus

It differs from Chalceus erythrurus and Chalceus spilogyros in the absence of a humeral spot and from Chalceus epakros and Chalceus guaporensis in the lack of a longitudinal spot along the sides of the body, located deep under the skin.

In life, Chalceus macrolepidotus can be distinguished from Chalceus epakros by the lack of red pigmentation in the central portions of the scales of the longitudinal series above the lateral line and by Chalceus erythrurus for presenting the pelvic and anal fins dyed red or hyaline, and not yellowish.

Chalceus macrolepidotus: Araripirá, Ararí, Chalceu, Arari vermelho (Brasil); São Pedro, Pink-tailed characin, Pink tailed chalceus

Chalceus macrolepidotus Cuvier, 1818
 

According to FISHBASE:

Kingdom = Animalia ; Phylum = Chordata ; Class = Actinopterygii ; Order = Characiformes ; Family = Chalceidae ; Genus =
  Chalceus.

Distribution: South America: Negro and Orinoco River basins and coastal rivers in Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana.

Size - Maximum Length: 24,5 cm.

Synonyms: Chalceus macrolepidotus, Chalceus ararapeera, Creagrutus pellegrini.

Common name of Chalceus macrolepidotus: Araripirá, Ararí, Chalceu, Arari vermelho (Brasil); São Pedro, Pink-tailed characin, Pink tailed chalceus (EUA).

Chalceus macrolepidotus: Araripirá, Ararí, Chalceu, Arari vermelho (Brasil); São Pedro, Pink-tailed characin, Pink tailed chalceus

Reference: Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. …, 2003. Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Chalceus macrolepidotus: Araripirá, Ararí, Chalceu, Arari vermelho (Brasil); São Pedro, Pink-tailed characin, Pink tailed chalceus

Chalceus macrolepidotus: Araripirá, Ararí, Chalceu, Arari vermelho (Brasil); São Pedro, Pink-tailed characin, Pink tailed chalceus

Chalceus macrolepidotus: Araripirá, Ararí, Chalceu, Arari vermelho (Brasil); São Pedro, Pink-tailed characin, Pink tailed chalceus

References:

Heterocharax macrolepis: piaba, tetra violeta, Sardinita, Viherkuultotetra

FISHBASE = https://www.fishbase.de/summary/Chalceus-macrolepidotus

INSTRUÇÃO NORMATIVA INTERMINISTERIAL N°1, DE 3 DE JANEIRO DE 2012. Diário Oficial da União – Seção I, Nº3, quarta-feira, 4 de janeiro de 2012, páginas 26 a 42 – ISSN 1677-7042 INI MPA-MMA (n01-2012 - Peixes Ornamentais Continentais.pdf)

Burt, A., D.L. Kramer, K. Nakatsuru and C. Spry, 1988. The tempo of reproduction in Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis (Characidae), with a discussion on the biology of 'multiple spawning' in fishes. Environ. Biol. Fish. 22(1):15-27.

Géry, J., 1977. Characoids of the world. Neptune City ; Reigate : T.F.H. [etc.]; 672 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 23 cm.

Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. …, 2003. Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Lucena, C.A.S. and N.A. Menezes, 2003. Subfamily Characinae (Characins, tetras). p. 200-208. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Mattox, G.M.T., Britz, R., Toledo-Piza, M. & Marinho, M.M.F. (2013): Cyanogaster noctivaga, a remarkable new genus and species of miniature fish from the Rio Negro, Amazon basin (Ostariophysi: Characidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 23 (4) [2012]: 297-318.

Moreira, C.R. 2007. Relações filogenéticas na ordem Characiformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Tese de doutorado não publicada, Universidade de São Paulo, 468p.

Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.; Buckup P.A.: "Relationships of the Characidiinae and phylogeny of characiform fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi)", Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, L.R. Malabarba, R.E. Reis, R.P. Vari, Z.M. Lucena, eds. (Porto Alegre: Edipucr) 1998:123-144.

Planquette, P., P. Keith and P.-Y. Le Bail, 1996. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane. Tome 1. Collection du Patrimoine Naturel Volume 22, MNHN, Paris & INRA, Paris. 429 p.

Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.  

Weitzman, M. and S.H. Weitzman, 2003. Lebiasinidae (Pencil fishes). p. 241-251. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Weitzman, S.H. and L. Palmer, 1997. A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae) from Neblina region of Venezuela and Brazil, with comments on the putative 'rosy tetra clade'. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 7(3/4):209-242.

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