Identification Key of the Chalceus erythrurus:

1 " - Presence of dark pigmentation forming humeral spots or stripes ..................................................................................2

2 " - Presence of conspicuous humeral spot, round in shape and located superficially beneath scales; lateral surface of body usually with reticulate pattern; snout rounded; median fontanel present between frontals and parietals ....................................................................3

3 -  Humeral spot with notch on its posterodorsal margin; reticulate pattern of body coloration more evident along series of scales posterior to humeral blotch; pelvic and anal fins dark; caudal-fin lobes robust and rounded .................................................Chalceus erythrurus
 
Chalceus erythrurus: Arirí, Arari amarelo, Rabo de fogo (Brasil); Gelbflossen-Glanzsalmler, San Pedro, Tucanfish
 
Description of the Chalceus erythrurus species:
 
Chalceus erythrurus Cope, 1870

Chalceus erythrurus fish has a rounded, conspicuous humeral spot, with a notch on the posterodorsal margin; dark skin on the pelvic and anal fins; and presence of dark chromatophores on the posterior margin in a longitudinal manner.

Chalceus erythrurus can grow to 22 cm. It has a relatively elongated body, a slightly upper mouth. Its lateral line presents with 5-7 perforated scales, plus 24 unperforated scales along the body. The anal fin has 25-28 branched rays, the adipose fin is absent. It has light color, a medium dark band (more visible in preserved specimens); in life, it has a red caudal fin, as well as red spots along the flanks. Uncommon species, found in various types of environment of the Teles Pires River and larger tributaries.
 
Chalceus erythrurus: Arirí, Arari amarelo, Rabo de fogo (Brasil); Gelbflossen-Glanzsalmler, San Pedro, Tucanfish
 
A series of scales after the humeral spot distinguishes Chalceus erythrurus from its counterparts (in some sexually mature samples, the humeral point can be changed to a wide dark longitudinal strip).
 
Although Chalceus spilogyros also has a rounded humeral point, this point is not carved and is relatively smaller than the Chalceus erythrurus mark.
 
A humeral spot is present in Chalceus guaporensis and, sometimes, in Chalceus epakros, however, in these species it is generally vertical elongated and located deeper in the skin, being consequently less visible than the humeral spot of Chalceus erythrurus and Chalceus spilogyros in which the spot is superficially located on the skin; in addition, the caudal fin lobes in Chalceus erythrurus are robust and rounded compared to more elongated and slender lobes in all other Chalceus species.
 
Chalceus erythrurus: Arirí, Arari amarelo, Rabo de fogo (Brasil); Gelbflossen-Glanzsalmler, San Pedro, Tucanfish
 

Chalceus erythrurus Cope, 1870 

According to FISHBASE:

Kingdom = Animalia ; Phylum = Chordata ; Class = Actinopterygii ; Order = Characiformes ; Family = Chalceidae ; Genus =
  Chalceus.

Distribution: South America: Rio Amazonas and Rio Solimões to Rio Ucayali drainge in Peru.

Size - Maximum Length: 21,4 cm.

Synonyms: Chalceus erythrurus, Plethodectes erythrurus,  Pellegrinina heterolepis, Chalceus macrolepidotus iquitensis.

Common name of Chalceus erythrurus: Arirí, Arari amarelo, Rabo de fogo (Brasil); Gelbflossen-Glanzsalmler, San Pedro, Tucanfish (EUA).

Chalceus erythrurus: Arirí, Arari amarelo, Rabo de fogo (Brasil); Gelbflossen-Glanzsalmler, San Pedro, Tucanfish

Reference: Ortega, H. and R.P. Vari, 1986. Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Peru. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (437):1-25.

Chalceus erythrurus: Arirí, Arari amarelo, Rabo de fogo (Brasil); Gelbflossen-Glanzsalmler, San Pedro, Tucanfish

Chalceus erythrurus: Arirí, Arari amarelo, Rabo de fogo (Brasil); Gelbflossen-Glanzsalmler, San Pedro, Tucanfish

Chalceus erythrurus: Arirí, Arari amarelo, Rabo de fogo (Brasil); Gelbflossen-Glanzsalmler, San Pedro, Tucanfish

Chalceus erythrurus: Arirí, Arari amarelo, Rabo de fogo (Brasil); Gelbflossen-Glanzsalmler, San Pedro, Tucanfish

Chalceus erythrurus: Arirí, Arari amarelo, Rabo de fogo (Brasil); Gelbflossen-Glanzsalmler, San Pedro, Tucanfish

References:

Heterocharax macrolepis: piaba, tetra violeta, Sardinita, Viherkuultotetra

FISHBASE = https://www.fishbase.de/summary/Chalceus-erythrurus

INSTRUÇÃO NORMATIVA INTERMINISTERIAL N°1, DE 3 DE JANEIRO DE 2012. Diário Oficial da União – Seção I, Nº3, quarta-feira, 4 de janeiro de 2012, páginas 26 a 42 – ISSN 1677-7042 INI MPA-MMA (n01-2012 - Peixes Ornamentais Continentais.pdf)

Burt, A., D.L. Kramer, K. Nakatsuru and C. Spry, 1988. The tempo of reproduction in Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis (Characidae), with a discussion on the biology of 'multiple spawning' in fishes. Environ. Biol. Fish. 22(1):15-27.

Géry, J., 1977. Characoids of the world. Neptune City ; Reigate : T.F.H. [etc.]; 672 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 23 cm.

Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. …, 2003. Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Lucena, C.A.S. and N.A. Menezes, 2003. Subfamily Characinae (Characins, tetras). p. 200-208. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Mattox, G.M.T., Britz, R., Toledo-Piza, M. & Marinho, M.M.F. (2013): Cyanogaster noctivaga, a remarkable new genus and species of miniature fish from the Rio Negro, Amazon basin (Ostariophysi: Characidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 23 (4) [2012]: 297-318.

Moreira, C.R. 2007. Relações filogenéticas na ordem Characiformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Tese de doutorado não publicada, Universidade de São Paulo, 468p.

Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.; Buckup P.A.: "Relationships of the Characidiinae and phylogeny of characiform fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi)", Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, L.R. Malabarba, R.E. Reis, R.P. Vari, Z.M. Lucena, eds. (Porto Alegre: Edipucr) 1998:123-144.

Planquette, P., P. Keith and P.-Y. Le Bail, 1996. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane. Tome 1. Collection du Patrimoine Naturel Volume 22, MNHN, Paris & INRA, Paris. 429 p.

Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.  

Weitzman, M. and S.H. Weitzman, 2003. Lebiasinidae (Pencil fishes). p. 241-251. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Weitzman, S.H. and L. Palmer, 1997. A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae) from Neblina region of Venezuela and Brazil, with comments on the putative 'rosy tetra clade'. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 7(3/4):209-242.

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