Identification key of Carnegiella schereri:

1. Pectoral region strongly pronounced, pectoral fins elongated and positioned upwards ..............................................................................2

2. Absence of an adipose fin ................................................................3

3. Body with small spots or lines ........................................................4

4. Keel with spots or narrow parallel lines, sometimes with a black border; pectoral fins with a black band; quite deep body; lack of circorbital bones; anal fin with less than 31 rays; maxilla with less than 3 teeth .........5

5. It presents the belly with dark spots ....................Carnegiella schereri

Carnegiella schereri: Peixe-borboleta (Brasil); Pechito (Peru), Scherer's hatchetfish,  Silver hatchetfish, Dwarf hatchetfish

Description of the species Carnegiella schereri:

Carnegiella schereri Fernández-Yépez, 1950 
 
Small species reaching about 3 cm. Light and shiny body, darker on the dorsal part. It has a black band on the abdominal part that runs from the base of the caudal peduncle to the snout.

Carnegiella species are polyptic, which means that two or more distinct populations can be recognized within species concepts, and separated as subspecies.
 
Carnegiella schereri: Peixe-borboleta (Brasil); Pechito (Peru), Scherer's hatchetfish,  Silver hatchetfish, Dwarf hatchetfish
 
The species Carnegiella schereri and Carnegiella marthae are so closely related that in the past they were considered only as subspecies of each other. At that time, they were named Carnegiella marthae marthae and Carnegiella marthae schereri. Currently, they have been broken down into two species, which can be easily distinguished by the pattern where Carnegiella schereri always presents the belly with dark spots and Carnegiella marthae shows the belly with darker stripes.

The flying freshwater fish, hatchetfishes, are peaceful, interesting fish and live close to the water's surface.
 
Carnegiella schereri: Peixe-borboleta (Brasil); Pechito (Peru), Scherer's hatchetfish,  Silver hatchetfish, Dwarf hatchetfish
 

Carnegiella schereri Fernández-Yépez, 1950 

According to FISHBASE:

Kingdom = Animalia ; Phylum = Chordata ; Class = Actinopterygii ; Order = Characiformes ; Family = Gasteropelecidae
; Genus =  Carnegiella.

Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin in Peru and Brazil.

Size - Maximum Length: 2,6 cm.

Synonyms: Carnegiella schereri.

Common name of Carnegiella schereri: Peixe-borboleta (Brasil); Pechito (Peru), Scherer's hatchetfish,  Silver hatchetfish, Dwarf hatchetfish (EUA).

Carnegiella schereri: Peixe-borboleta (Brasil); Pechito (Peru), Scherer's hatchetfish,  Silver hatchetfish, Dwarf hatchetfish

Reference: Weitzman, S.H. and L. Palmer, 2003. Gasteropelecidae (Freshwater hatchetfishes). p. 101-103. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Carnegiella schereri: Peixe-borboleta (Brasil); Pechito (Peru), Scherer's hatchetfish,  Silver hatchetfish, Dwarf hatchetfish

References:

Heterocharax macrolepis: piaba, tetra violeta, Sardinita, Viherkuultotetra

FISHBASE = https://www.fishbase.de/summary/Carnegiella-schereri

INSTRUÇÃO NORMATIVA INTERMINISTERIAL N°1, DE 3 DE JANEIRO DE 2012. Diário Oficial da União – Seção I, Nº3, quarta-feira, 4 de janeiro de 2012, páginas 26 a 42 – ISSN 1677-7042 INI MPA-MMA (n01-2012 - Peixes Ornamentais Continentais.pdf)

Burt, A., D.L. Kramer, K. Nakatsuru and C. Spry, 1988. The tempo of reproduction in Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis (Characidae), with a discussion on the biology of 'multiple spawning' in fishes. Environ. Biol. Fish. 22(1):15-27.

Géry, J., 1977. Characoids of the world. Neptune City ; Reigate : T.F.H. [etc.]; 672 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 23 cm.

Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. …, 2003. Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Lucena, C.A.S. and N.A. Menezes, 2003. Subfamily Characinae (Characins, tetras). p. 200-208. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Mattox, G.M.T., Britz, R., Toledo-Piza, M. & Marinho, M.M.F. (2013): Cyanogaster noctivaga, a remarkable new genus and species of miniature fish from the Rio Negro, Amazon basin (Ostariophysi: Characidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 23 (4) [2012]: 297-318.

Moreira, C.R. 2007. Relações filogenéticas na ordem Characiformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Tese de doutorado não publicada, Universidade de São Paulo, 468p.

Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.; Buckup P.A.: "Relationships of the Characidiinae and phylogeny of characiform fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi)", Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, L.R. Malabarba, R.E. Reis, R.P. Vari, Z.M. Lucena, eds. (Porto Alegre: Edipucr) 1998:123-144.

Planquette, P., P. Keith and P.-Y. Le Bail, 1996. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane. Tome 1. Collection du Patrimoine Naturel Volume 22, MNHN, Paris & INRA, Paris. 429 p.

Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.  

Weitzman, M. and S.H. Weitzman, 2003. Lebiasinidae (Pencil fishes). p. 241-251. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Weitzman, S.H. and L. Palmer, 1997. A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae) from Neblina region of Venezuela and Brazil, with comments on the putative 'rosy tetra clade'. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 7(3/4):209-242.

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